Diagonal Latin Square: An n x n matrix in which n distinct symbols are arranged, such that each symbol occurs exactly once in each row, in each column, and in each main diagonal.
Orthogonal Latin Squares. Two Latin squares of order n are orthogonal if each symbol in the first square meets each symbol in the second square exactly once when they are superposed.
Self-orthogonal Diagonal Latin Square, (SODLS): A diagonal Latin square that is orthogonal to its transpose, (Rotate 7).
MagicSquaresSODLS makes SODLS, (with symbols 0 to n-1). A magic square M is made from each SODLS Q and its transpose as, (see notes):
M[row][col] = n x Q[row][col] + Q[col][row] + 1
Note: associative, pandiagonal, ultramagic below refer to SODLS that make these types of magic square. See references: SSSODLS Cao and Li, (associative); SOWPLS Zhang, Li, and Lei, (pandiagonal); PSSSODLS Henderson, (ultramagic).
Pandiagonal, ultramagic, and associative are easily made:
The pandiagonal method is borrowed from Inder Taneja. The ultramagic method is based on the formula Q[r][c] = (2r-c)%n for prime orders ≥ 5 by Xu and Lu. Other associative are made by swapping rows/columns of the ultramagic.
Small associative squares are also made by a backtracking procedure. Orders 11 and 13 associative made by backtracking are included in the program.
Non-prime order squares such as 25, 35, 49, 55 are sometimes made as composites of smaller ones.
For order 9, an associative is made by backtracking, a pandiagonal is made based on one by Inder Taneja,
and an ultramagic made by backtracking is included in the program.
An order 15 associative made by backtracking is included in the program.
An order 27 pandiagonal is made based on one by Xu and Lu.
Other methods, (extending concepts from squares by Mitsutoshi Nakamura):
x ks+1 are similar to an order 21 by Mitsutoshi Nakamura.
Some squares, such as 45, 63, 75, 81 are made as composites of smaller ones.
Small order associative squares are made by a backtracking procedure.
An order 12 associative made by backtracking is included in the program. Order 24 is made as 4 5s+4 similar to a 24 magic by Mitsutoshi Nakamura. An order 8 ultramagic and an order 16 associative made by backtracking are included for variety.
Associative squares are sometimes converted to pandiagonal squares by Planck's A-D method. See note.
Some squares, such as 16, 20, 28, 32 are made as composites of smaller ones.
An order 10 and an order 14 magic are included in the program. The 10 was made by backtracking; the 14 is adapted from one by Inder Taneja based on Bennett, Du and Zhang; Orders 18, 22, 26 and 30 are made with a diagonal, center 4x4 similar to an order 18 by Mitsutoshi Nakamura.
Other methods, (extending concepts from Mitsutoshi Nakamura's squares):
x ks+k/2 are similar to an order 22 by Mitsutoshi Nakamura.
Some squares, such as 50, 70, 90, 98 are made as composites of smaller ones.
Here are fragments of consoles for 1 1000 and some variations of
Note that none 3 is because there is no SODLS of order 2, 3, or 6.
The number of SODLS for some small orders is known. See notes.
* nfr: SODLS with natural order first row, (0 1 2 3 ... ).
Francis Gaspalou calculated the number of SODLS for order 8 in 2010.
Here is type information for the magic squares:
A SODLS remains a SODLS under Transform 1 and Transform 2.
Amela, Miguel Angel
General Pico - La Pampa - Argentina
"Universal H-IXOHOXI Magic Squares of Order Eight"
"A Sextuply Self-Orthogonal Latin Square of Order Nine and their Magic Squares", 2014
Bennett, Frank E., Beiliang Du and Hantao Zhang
"Existence of self-orthogonal diagonal Latin squares with a missing subsquare", 2003
Cao, H. and W. Li
"Existence of strong symmetric self-orthogonal diagonal Latin squares", 2011
Francis communicated the number of order 8 SODLS to an e-mail group in July, 2010. He computed the number of SODLS with the natural order first row as 1,152, and calculated the total as 1,152 x 8! = 46,448,640.
"On Pandiagonal Strongly Symmetric Self-Orthogonal Diagonal Latin Squares (PSSSODLS)", 2012
Kim, Kichul and V. K. Prasanna Kumar
"Perfect Latin Squares and Parallel Array Access", 1989
Lu, Runming, Sheng Liu and Jian Zhang
"Searching for Doubly Self-orthogonal Latin Squares", 2011
The SODLS squares referred to above were communicated to Inder Taneja and an e-mail group by Mitsutoshi in July, 2015.
Taneja, Inder J.
Formerly, Professor of Mathematics, Federal University of Santa Catarina,
88040-400 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.
"Intervally Distributed, Palindromic, Selfie Magic Squares, and Double Colored Patterns", 2015
"Intervally Distributed, Palindromic and Selfie Magic Squares: Genetic Table and Colored Pattern - Orders 11 to 20", 2015
"Intervally Distributed, Palindromic and Selfie Magic Squares - Orders 21 to 25", 2015
Xu, Cheng-Xu and Zhun-Wei Lu
"Pandiagonal Magic Squares", 2005
Zhang, Yong, Wen Li and Jian Guo Lei
"Existence of weakly pandiagonal orthogonal Latin squares", 2013